Friday, July 9, 2010
History of Jaipongan Dance from West Java, Indonesia
Jaipongan is a genre of dance that was born from the creativity of an artist from Bandung, Gugum Gumbira. His attention to folk art that one of them is making Tilu Tap right to know and recognize motion patterns perbendaharan dance traditions that existed at Kliningan / Bajidoran or Tap Tilu. Opening gestures, pencugan, nibakeun and several kinds of motion of several arts mincid above have enough inspiration to develop the dance or the arts that is now known by the name Jaipongan.
Prior to this performing art forms emerged, there was some influence behind the dance form this association. In West Java, for example, is the influence of social dance Ball Room, which is usually in a dance-dance association could not be separated from existence and pamogoran ronggeng. Ronggeng in social dance is no longer functioning for ceremonial events, but for entertainment or a way of hanging out. Ronggeng existence in the performing arts attraction that invites sympathy for the pamogoran. For example on Tilu Tap dance is so well known by the Sundanese people, it is estimated this art popular around the year 1916. As the folk performing arts, this art is only supported by simple elements, such as waditra that includes fiddle, drums, two kulanter, three percussion, and gongs. Similarly tarinya motions that do not have a standard pattern of motion, simple costumes dancer as a reflection of democracy.
Along with the waning of the above art forms, the former pamogoran (audience who actively participate in the performing arts Tap Tilu / Doger / Tayub) switched his attention on the performing arts Kliningan, which in the North Coast region of West Java (Karawang, Bekasi, Purwakarta, Indramayu, and Subang ) known as Kliningan Bajidoran tarinya patterns or events that the show has some similarities with the previous art (Tap Tilu / Doger / Tayub). In the meantime, the existence of mask dances in Banjet quite popular, particularly in Donegal, where several motion patterns Bajidoran taken from the dance in this Banjet Mask. In koreografis dance is still reveals patterns tradition (Tap Tilu) which contain elements of the opening gestures, pencugan, and several kinds of motion nibakeun mincid which in turn become the basis Jaipongan dance creation. Some basic motions other than Tap dance Jaipongan Tilu, Ibing Bajidor and Mask Banjet is Tayuban and Pencak Silat.
The emergence of dance works Gumbira Gugum initially called Tap Tilu developments, which are due to basic dance was developed from Tilu Tap. The first work Gugum Gumbira still very thick with color ibing Tilu Tap, both in terms of choreography and iringannya, who later became a popular dance called Jaipongan.
Jaipongan works first began to be known by the public is dance "Leaves Pulus Keser Bojong" and "Rendeng Bojong" both of which are types of dance and dance partner's daughter (son and daughter). From it emerged a few dance dancer Jaipongan a reliable name like Tati Saleh, Yeti Mamat, Eli Somali, and Pepen Dedi Kurniadi. Early emergence of these dances could be discussion, the central issue is the erotic and vulgar movements. But from the few print media exposure, starting Gumbira Gugum known to the public, especially after the dance Jaipongan in 1980 staged at the central station TVRI Jakarta. The impact of the popularity of the more increase the frequency of performances, either on television, the celebration and feasts were held by the private sector and government.
Attendance Jaipongan substantial contribution to the activist art of dance for more active types of folk dances that explore previously less attention. With the emergence of dance Jaipongan, used by activists to hold a dance art dance classes Jaipongan, also used by employers as pubs, night-killer invited guests, where the further development of this kind of business opportunities created by actuators business of dance as an economic empowerment Dance Studio's name or groups in some areas of West Java, for example in Subang with Jaipongan style "kaleran" (north).
Jaipongan characteristic style kaleran, namely the fun, erotic, humorous, excitement, spontaneity, and simplicity (naturally, whatever they are). This is reflected in the pattern of presentation of dance on the show, there is a given pattern (Pattern Ibing) as in art Jaipongan in Bandung, also there are also dances that are not cut is (Ibing Saka), for example in art Jaipongan Subang and Karawang. This term can be found in Jaipongan kaleran style, especially in the area of Subang. In its presentation, this kaleran Jaipongan style, as follows: 1) Tatalu; 2) Flower Bluebird; 3) Fruit kawung Gopar; 4) Dance Opening (Ibing Pattern), usually sung by a single dancer or Sinden Tatandakan (sinden attack but can not sing but dance songs sinden / interpreter kawih) 5) Jeblokan and Jabanan, when the show is part of the audience (bajidor) sawer money (jabanan) while greeting stickers. Jeblokan term is defined as couples who settled between sinden and the audience (bajidor).
A further development occurred in taahun dance Jaipongan 1980-1990's, where Gugum Gumbira create other dances such as Toka-toka, Setra Sari, Sonteng, Pencug, Egret dazed, convoy, procession Codiaeum variegatum Leaves, Rawayan, and Dance kawung Anten. From these dances appeared several dancers Jaipongan reliable among others Iceu Effendi, Yumiati Mandiri, Miming Mintarsih, Nani, Erna, Mira Tejaningrum, Ine Dinar, Ega, Nuni, Cepy, Agah, Aa Suryabrata, and Asep.
This adult dance Jaipongan quotable as one identity keseniaan West Java, this is apparent on several important events relating to visitors from foreign countries who came to West Java, it was greeted with a dance performance Jaipongan. Similarly, art missions to foreign countries, always equipped with Jaipongan dance. Dance Jaipongan many other art-influenced art in the West Java communities, both in the performing arts, puppets, gamelan, Genjring / flying, Kacapi jaipongan, and almost all public performances as well as on modern dangdut music which is collaborated with the art Jaipong Pong-Dut. Jaipongan has diplopori by Mr. Nur & Leni
Reference: Ganjar Kurnia. 2003. Description of the West Javanese art. Department of Culture & Tourism in West Java, Bandung.