Wednesday, July 14, 2010
MDGs and Poverty in Indonesia
Today poverty is not just a problem in that country but has become the world's problems. Manifestation of concern for the world to poverty is the existence of the MDGs or the Millennium Development Goals, UN members agreed five years ago in a global summit which gave birth to the Millennium Declaration. Ie, a global initiative to reduce the number of poor people in the world a half in 2015.
MDGs have eight goals (goal) and 18 targets to be achieved by developing countries and developed countries. On September 4 to 16, 2005 the leaders of countries and thousands of civil society gathered at UN headquarters to attend the 60th General Session of the UN. This court has a special meaning for not just talking about the UN reform package, but also evaluate the implementation of the MDGs five years. Based on the HDR 2005, 50 countries with a population of 900 million failed to reach the MDGs. Of that amount, as many as 24 countries are in Sub-Saharan countries and Africa, while 65 other countries had failed to reach one MDG until 2040. according to the report, which bumps the achievement of MDGs is a gap occurring at the global level and within countries. Poverty reduction efforts will not be effective if the problem of poverty itself is not properly understood by policy makers.
What about the state of poverty in Indonesia related to the MDGs? The Indonesian nation has succeeded in reducing poverty levels initially increased as the impact of economic crisis in 1999. Total population under national poverty line fell from 23.4% in 1999 to 16.6% in 2004. Meanwhile, the number of residents based on income standards of less than one U.S. dollar per day also decreased from 9.2% in 2001 to 7.2% in 2002. Decrease in the number of poor people showed a positive trend, because of the efforts and cooperation of all stakeholders and the partisanship of the poor in the development implementation in Indonesia.
Problem of poverty in Indonesia was marked by low quality of life of the community as shown by the human development index (HDI) of Indonesia. In between some ASEAN countries, Indonesia is still lower than Malaysia and Thailand. Meanwhile, the human poverty index (HPI) is higher than the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand.
Poverty reduction is the main priority of national development policy which is also a priority of Medium Term Development Plan (Medium Term Development Plan) 2004-2009 which is expected to reduce the percentage of poor people to 8.2% in 2009. The government is currently doing steps first priority in the short term to reduce the gap between regions with some policies. First, the provision of irrigation facilities, safe water and basic sanitation, especially in the areas of scarce water resources. Second, the construction of roads, bridges and docks, especially for isolated and backward regions. Third, the redistribution of financial resources to regions that have low incomes and the instrument specific allocation fund (DAK).
The second long-term aim to expand employment opportunities and trying. That is done through the help of stimulants for venture capital funds mainly through easy access to micro and SME credit, job skills training to improve the quality of labor, increase investment and revitalization of the industry including labor-intensive industries, construction of facilities and infrastructure.
The third long-term, exclusively for fulfilling the basic rights of poor people are directly provided services, among others, by providing free education for the completion of nine-year compulsory education. To improve access and expand learning opportunities for all age children basic education, with the main target areas and the poor, remote and isolated the 2005/2006 school year the government began providing school operating costs (BOS), as a first step the implementation of free basic education.
It also provides free health care insurance for the poor in health centers and hospital grade III. With the enactment of Law No.40 of 2004 on National Social Security System, then efforts to increase access for the poor to health services be continued and further enhanced through the efforts of health care systems of poor people with health insurance that the premium paid by the government.
For the implementation of these programs, Indonesia (as a developing country) could ask for help from abroad. But developing country recipient of the facility itself must be committed to using the money correctly. Macro objectives of reducing poverty. We hope developed countries can support the unity of these programs, with the aid disbursed.
As once said Trade Minister Mari Elka Pangestu, Indonesia's poverty reduction programs can also be done in other ways. Investment and infrastructure development are the two things needed in the creation of labor which can ultimately solve the problem of poverty. Each area needs investment and infrastructure types are different. This is what should be regulated and government thinking.
In addition, the cultural development in Indonesia should be developed through community empowerment and active community involvements. Primarily, of course, poor communities, ranging from well development program planning and policy determination of the budget, and program implementation and monitoring and evaluation.
The writer is a graduate student FKM
Published in els.bappenas.go.id accessed on July 14, 2010