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Friday, September 11, 2009

Training and professional development

Training is the process of acquiring specific skills to perform a job better (Jucious, 1963). It helps people to become qualified and proficient in doing some jobs (Dahama, 1979). Usually an organization facilitates the employees' learning through training so that their modified behavior contributes to the attainment of the organization's goals and objectives. Van Dersal (1962) defined training as the process of teaching, informing, or educating people so that (1) they may become as well qualified as possible to do their job, and (2) they become qualified to perform in positions of greater difficulty and responsibility.

Flippo (1961) differentiated between education and training, locating these at the two ends of a continuum of personnel development ranging from a general education to specific training. While training is concerned with those activities which are designed to improve human performance on the job that employees are at present doing or are being hired to do, education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of the total environment. Education is the development of the human mind, and it increases the powers of observation, analysis, integration, understanding, decision making, and adjustment to new situations.
Learning theories and training

Learning theories are the basic materials which are usually applied in all educational and training activities. The more one understands learning theories, the better he or she will be able to make decisions and apply them to achieving the objectives. The behaviorists, the cognitive, and the humanists emphasize different aspects of the teaching-learning process in their approaches. While the behaviorists stress external conditions (environment) resulting in observations and measurable changes in behavior, the cognitive are more concerned with how the mind works (mental processes such as coding, categorizing, and representing information in memory). The humanists, on the other hand, emphasize the affective aspects (e.g., emotions, attitudes) of human behavior that influence learning (IRRI, 1990). In extension systems, effective training must be able to take care of all the theories of learning in order to change the action, belief, and knowledge components of a trainee simultaneously. Androgyny (a theory of adult learning) is usually used rather than pedagogy (a theory of child learning) in extension training.
Training approach

There are three approaches to training: (1) the traditional approach, (2) the experiential approach, and (3) the performance-based approach (Rama, Etling, & Bowen, 1993). In the traditional approach, the training staff designs the objectives, contents, teaching techniques, assignments, lesson plans, motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is intervention by the training staff. In the experiential approach, the trainer incorporates experiences where in the learner becomes active and influences the training process. Unlike the academic approach inherent in the traditional model, experiential training emphasizes real or simulated situations in which the trainees will eventually operate. In this model, the objectives and other elements of training are jointly determined by the trainers and trainees. Trainers primarily serve as facilitators, catalysts, or resource persons. In the performance-based approach to training, goals are measured through attainment of a given level of proficiency instead of passing grades of the trainees. Emphasis is given to acquiring specific observable skills for a task. This performance-based teacher education (PBTE) model, developed by Elam (1971), is mostly task or skill centered and is also applicable to non formal educational organizations such as extension.


Extension personnel around the world in need of training

Worldwide, there are currently more than 600,000 extension workers comprised of administrative staff, subject-matter specialists (SMS), fieldworkers, and some multipurpose unidentified people; the Asian and Pacific countries have absorbed more than 70 per cent of them (Bahal, Swanson, & Earner, 1992). The percentage of extension personnel by position, as reported by Swanson, Earner, and Bahal (1990), was 7 per cent administrative, 14 per cent SMS, and 79 per cent field staff, with regional differences. Almost 13 per cent of extension workers are women, with significant regional differences (Bahal et al., 1992). The ratio of SMS to field staff is also low in Asia, Africa, the Near East, and Latin American countries, varying from about 1:11 to 1:14. The ratio for countries of Europe and North America varies from 1:1.5 to 1:1.6. The worldwide ratio of SMS to field staff is 1:11.5 (Swanson et al., 1990).

Deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and ability among extension personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable. About 39 per cent of the extension personnel worldwide have a secondary-level and 33 per cent an intermediate-level education (Bahal et al., 1992). Moreover, within each region, there is a lot of variation in basic academic qualifications of the frontline extension workers, SMS, and administrators. Differences in training received are also wide. In Africa, most frontline extension workers still have only a secondary school diploma (Bahal et al., 1992). The poor educational background of extension personnel necessitates regular training.
Types of training

Training may broadly be categorized into two types: preservice training and inservice training. Preservice training is more academic in nature and is offered by formal institutions following definite curricula and syllabuses for a certain duration to offer a formal degree or diploma. Inservice training, on the other hand, is offered by the organization from time to time for the development of skills and knowledge of the incumbents.

Preservice Training

Preservice training is a process through which individuals are made ready to enter a certain kind of professional job such as agriculture, medicine, or engineering. They have to attend regular classes in a formal institution and need to complete a definite curriculum and courses successfully to receive a formal degree or diploma. They are not entitled to get a professional job unless they can earn a certificate, diploma, or degree from the appropriate institution. Preservice training contents emphasize mostly technical subject matter such as crops, animal husbandry, and fisheries as well as pedagogical skills to prepare the students to work in agriculture.

In general two types of preservice training are available for agricultural staff. These are (1) degree level (at least a bachelor's degree in agriculture or related field), which is usually offered for four years by a university or agricultural college; and (2) diploma level, which is mostly offered by the schools of agriculture for a period of two to three years. The entry point for the former is normally twelve years of schooling and for the latter ten years of schooling.

Inservice Training and Staff Development

Inservice training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities. It promotes the professional growth of individuals. "It is a program designed to strengthen the competencies of extension workers while they are on the job" (Malone, 1984, p. 209). Inservice training is a problem-centred, learner-oriented, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose, broaden perception of the clientele, and increase capacity to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques.

Inservice training may broadly be categorized into five different types: (1) induction or orientation training, (2) foundation training, (3) on-the-job training, (4) refresher or maintenance training, and (5) career development training. All of these types of training are needed for the proper development of extension staff throughout their service life.

Induction or Orientation Training. Induction training is given immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their positions. It begins on the first day the new employee is on the job (Rogers & Olmsted, 1957). This type of training is aimed at acquainting the new employee with the organization and its personnel. Induction training for all new personnel should develop an attitude of personal dedication to the service of people and the organization. This kind of training supplements whatever preservice training the new personnel might have had (Halim and Ali, 1988). Concerning the characteristics of a new employee. Van Dersal (1962) said that when people start to work in an organization for the first time, they are eager to know what sort of outfit they are getting into, what they are supposed to do, and whom they will work with. They are likely to be more attentive and open-minded than experienced employees. In fact, the most favourable time for gaining employees' attention and for moulding good habits among them is when they are new to the job.

Foundation Training. Foundation training is inservice training which is also appropriate for newly recruited personnel. Besides technical competence and routine instruction about the organization, every staff member needs some professional knowledge about various rules and regulations of the government, financial transactions, administrative capability, communication skills, leadership ability, coordination and cooperation among institutions and their linkage mechanism, report writing, and so on. Foundation training is made available to employees to strengthen the foundation of their service career. This training is usually provided at an early stage of service life.

Maintenance or Refresher Training. This training is offered to update and maintain the specialized subject-matter knowledge of the incumbents. Refresher training keeps the specialists, administrators, subject-matter officers, extension supervisors, and frontline workers updated and enables them to add to the knowledge and skills they have already. Maintenance or refresher training usually deals with new information and new methods, as well as review of older materials. This type of training is needed both to keep employees at the peak of their possible production and to prevent them from getting into a rut (Van Dersal, 1962).

On-the-Job Training. This is ad hoc or regularly scheduled training, such as fortnightly training under the training and visit (T&V) system of extension, and is provided by the superior officer or the subject-matter specialists to the subordinate field staff. This training is generally problem or technology oriented and may include formal presentations, informal discussion, and opportunities to try out new skills and knowledge in the field. The superior officer, administrator, or subject-matter specialist of each extension department must play a role in providing on-the-job training to the staff while conducting day-to-day normal activities.

Career or Development Training. This type of in-service training is designed to upgrade the knowledge, skills, and ability of employees to help them assume greater responsibility in higher positions. The training is arranged departmentally for successful extension workers, at all levels, for their own continuing education and professional development. Malone (1984) opined that extension services that provide the opportunity for all staff to prepare a plan for career training will receive the benefits of having longer tenured and more satisfied employees, which increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of an extension service. Malone stated that "career development is the act of acquiring information and resources that enables one to plan a program of lifelong learning related to his or her worklife" (p. 216). Although extension workers are responsible for designing their own career development education, the extension organization sometimes sets some criteria and provides opportunities for the staff by offering options.
Phases of training

Training is a circular process that begins with needs identification and after a number of steps ends with evaluation of the training activity. A change or deficiency in any step of the training process affects the whole system, and therefore it is important for a trainer to have a clear understanding about all phases and steps of the training process. In the broadest view, there are three phases of a training process: planning, implementation, and evaluation.

Planning Phase

The planning phase encompasses several activities, two of which - training needs identification and curriculum development - are very important.

Training Needs Identification. Training need is a condition where there is a gap between "what is" and "what should be" in terms of incumbents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviour for a particular situation at one point in time. This gap is called "a problem," which usually occurs when a difference exists between "desired performance" and "actual performance." The needs identification process assists trainers in making sure that they have matched a training programme to a training problem. For example, agricultural extension officers (AEOs) have been giving training to village extension workers (VEWs), but performance of the VEWs is not improving. The reasons may be:

1. The AEOs lack subject-matter knowledge.
2. The AEOs do not conduct training well.
3. The training centre lacks training facilities.
4. The VEWs are organized not to work properly until their demands are satisfied by the government.

The first two problems are related to knowledge and skills and can be solved effectively by a training programme, but the third and fourth problems need government attention to solve.

Training needs identification is possible through different analytical procedures. The major procedures used in determining training needs are the following:

Organizational analysis determines where training emphasis should be placed within the organization and is based on the objectives of an organization. Concerning what one should do in analysing an organization, McGhee and Thayer (1961) suggest four steps:

1. Stating the goals and objectives of an organization
2. Analysing the human resources
3. Analysing efficiency indices
4. Analysing the organizational climate

The results of these analyses are then compared with the objectives of the organization. These comparisons point to specific areas in which training is needed.

Individual analysis aims at identifying specific training needs for an individual or group of employees so that training can be tailored to their needs. This analysis centres on individuals and their specific needs concerning the skills, knowledge, or attitudes they must develop to perform their assigned tasks. The possible methods or techniques for individual analysis include performance appraisal, interviews, questionnaires, tests, analysis of behaviour, informal talks, checklist, counseling, critical incidents, recording, surveys, and observations.

Group analysis includes a number of techniques in which a group of well-informed employees discuss different aspects of the organization, the employees, and the tasks to identify the major discrepancies in achieving predetermined targets for each of them with a view to assessing training needs as distinguished from other necessary changes for removing these discrepancies. The major techniques which are used in this approach are brainstorming, buzzing, cardsorts, advisory committee, conferences, problem clinic, role playing, simulation, task forces, workshops, and so forth.

Many problems exist in an organization, but some problems cannot be solved by training. After a preliminary needs analysis, which gives probable causes and solutions, the results should be verified with the concerned personnel of the organization to determine whether training is an appropriate action to solve that problem.

Curriculum Development. This is the most important part in a training programme after a need for training has been identified. The curriculum specifies what will be taught and how it will be taught. It provides the framework and foundation of training. The first phase of curriculum development determines what will be taught, that is, the training content.

Once training needs have been identified and training activities have been decided as part of the solution, a needs analysis should be done to determine knowledge, skills, and attitude requirements and performance deficiencies. The needs analysis procedure involves breaking down the "training problem" into its basic parts in different successive phases to identify and understand the important components in each phase. Ultimately it leads to identifying and understanding the training content. The training needs analysis process can be divided into three distinct analytical phases: job analysis, task analysis, and knowledge and skill-gap analysis.

A. Job analysis. Job analysis is a method of determining major areas of tasks where training may be needed (see JA Worksheet). It involves the dissecting of a job into its component events or parts. This analysis allows a trainer to better understand what an employee does in an organization. Job analysis involves the "task identification" of a particular job (Wentling, 1992). The techniques used in task identification include job questionnaire, interview, participant observation, work sampling, job audit, and small-group discussion. The following steps may provide a guide for completion of job analysis:

1. Identify the job that is to be the subject of the analysis. This involves defining the focal point for the job analysis. It may include the entire job of a group of employees or only a specific segment of their job.

2. Prepare a list of tasks which can be done following different approaches and methods. Four approaches can be used to identify job tasks: (1) expertsidentify and list critical tasks, (2) observations and interviews are conducted with employees, (3) meetings are held with group representatives, and (4) a tentative list of task is reviewed by employees and their supervisors.

3. Verify the tasks. The draft list of tasks should be verified by experts, workers, and supervisors in the analysis process. This can be done through expert review, small-group discussions, and inter views. When the tasks are verified, a final list of job tasks is prepared.

4. Determine the frequency. The workers and super visors can fill in a form indicating how frequently each task in a job is performed. Different scales such as "seldom," "occasionally," "weekly to monthly," "daily to weekly," and "daily" can be used to quantify the intensity of a task accomplished.

5. Determine the importance. Not all tasks are equally important to a job. An occasionally performed task may be very important. Therefore, a relative importance rating is useful along with frequency rating. A scale such as "marginally important," "moderately important," and "extremely important" may be used to determine the relative importance of the job tasks.

6. Estimate the learning difficulty. An estimate of learning difficulty is another dimension of the job-task analysis. It shows the trainer the employees' perception of difficulty, which may be different from the trainer's own perception. A scale such as "easy," "moderately difficult," "very difficult," and "extremely difficult" may be used to determine the difficulty indices of job tasks.

7. Calculate the total score. This can be done by simply adding the scores for frequency, importance, and learning difficulty for each task. The column for total score in a worksheet indicates the priority tasks for training if these are training problems.

8. Review the findings. The results of the job-task analysis should be discussed with significant people in the training system, including government leaders, programme directors, and others interested in related training.

B. Task analysis. The output of the job analysis is a list of broad job tasks, based on importance, learning difficulty, and frequency of doing the task. Each task is a complex set of procedures in itself, and therefore it needs further analysis to find out which specific segment of the of the task is critical in designing a training programme (see Task Analysis Worksheet). To do this, it is necessary to follow a method called task analysis, which is similar to job analysis.

Task analysis procedures include preparing a blank task analysis worksheet, writing down the name of the job at the top of each sheet, and then making copies. Each of these forms will be used for breaking down and analysing each of the most important job tasks. Therefore, it is necessary to write one important task identified for training on each of the task analysis worksheets and to list all component parts of each task on its respective task analysis worksheet. This is followed by the steps used for job analysis to find out the frequency, importance, and learning difficulty for each step of the tasks. Then the score for each component part is put in the "total score" column, and the results are discussed with concerned personnel in the organization. The job analysis and task analysis processes are similar to each other, so the model for both worksheets is the same.

The important difference between these two steps of analysis is that "the job analysis helps us identify major blocks of content to include in training; the task analysis helps us understand what comprises an individual block" (Wentling, 1992). Both are very important to the curriculum development process. What needs to be taught and what steps are involved in the process are completed by these analyses and comprise the major steps in curriculum development.

C. Knowledge and skill-gap analysis. The knowledge or skill-gap analysis is a process of determining the training needs of individual employees in relation to the important tasks-steps or components of tasks identified for training (see Skill-Gap Analysis Worksheet). The skill-gap analysis determines how skilled or proficient individual employees are on these tasks-steps or components, how much individuals differ from desired performance, and whether or not they need training. It would be a waste of resources and frustrating to the trainer and trainees to design and deliver training on topics and skills where the trainees are already able and proficient. A priority list of the tasks identified for training according to the total score in the job analysis is made. Then, the steps or components that were identified on each task analysis worksheet are listed on the skill-gap analysis worksheet. This is followed by rating each step-component in terms of the trainee's current proficiency on a scale of 1 to 5, as shown in the legend of the worksheet. Identifying the steps-components that appear to have low proficiency is required because there is a gap between what is desired and the current situation. After this, a review is done to ponder whether the gap can be decreased or removed through training or whether training is the most appropriate method. There may be some steps-components for which measures other than training are more appropriate. At this stage, key personnel such as subject-matter specialists, supervisors, and extension-training experts should discuss the findings before finalizing the curriculum. This helps to identify different perspectives and to avoid unnoticed mistakes or biases in curriculum development.

The training needs analyses provide many things to a trainer. The analyses determine the training contents and how deficient the trainees are in these contents, and the sequence of tasks provides the sequence of training activity.

Job Analysis Worksheet

Job: Agriculture Extension Officer

Tasks:


Frequency performeda


Importanceb


Learning difficultyb


Total score


Focus

1. Supervision


4


3


1


8


...

2. Conducting training


4


3


3


10


yes

3. Planning programmes


2


3


2


7


...

4. Research trial


2


2


1


5


...

.........


...


...


...


...


...

.........


...


...


...


...


...

.........


...


...


...


...


...

a 1 = Seldom


b 1 = Marginally important


c 1 = Easy

2 = Occasionally


2 = Moderately important


2 = Moderately difficult

3 = Weekly to monthly


3 = Extremely important


3 = Very difficult

4 = Daily to weekly


4 = Extremely difficult



5 = Daily






Task Analysis Worksheet

Job: Agriculture Extension Officer

Task: Conducting training

Components/steps


Frequency Performeda


Importanceb
Difficultyc


Learning Score


Total


Focus

Establishing rapport


5


3


1


9


-

Introducing the topic


-


-


-


-


-

Presenting the subject


5


3


1


9


-

Maintaining sequence


-


-


-


-


-

Maintaining eye contact


-


-


-


-


-

Using A/V aids in time


5


3


4


12


yes







-


-


-


-




-


-





-


-

Summarizing the lecture


5


3


3


11


yes

a1 = Seldom


b1 = Marginally important


c1 = Easy

2 = Moderately important


2 = Moderately important


2 = Moderately difficult

3 = Weekly to monthly


3 = Extremely important


3 = Very difficult

4 = Daily to weekly


4 = Extremely difficult



5 = Daily






Skill-Gap Analysis Worksheet

Job: Agriculture Extension Officer

Task: Delivering lecture in VEWs training

Steps-components


Level of proficiency


Is proficiency a problem?


Can problem be solved by training?

Establishing rapport


1 2 3 (4) 5


[ ]


[ ]

Introducing the topic


1 2 (3) 4 5


[Y]


[Y]

Presenting the subject


1 2 3 (4) 5


[ ]


[ ]

Maintaining sequence


1 2 (3) 4 5


[ ]


[ ]

Maintaining eye contact


1 (2) 3 4 5


[Y]


[Y]

Using A/V aids in time


1 (2) 3 4 5


[ ]


[ ]

Supplying handouts


1 2 (3) 4 5


[Y]


[N]

.........


1 2 3 4 5


[ ]


[ ]

Summarizing the lecture


(1) 2 3 4 5


[Y]


[Y]

1 = Cannot do at all
2 = Can do less than half of the task
3 = Can do more than half but less than total
4 = Can do total but cannot maintain time schedule
5 = Can do within time schedule

Selecting a Training Method

A training programme has a better chance of success when its training methods are carefully selected. A training method is a strategy or tactic that a trainer uses to deliver the content so that the trainees achieve the objective (Wentling, 1992). Selecting an appropriate training method is perhaps the most important step in training activity once the training contents are identified. There are many training methods, but not all of these are equally suitable for all topics and in all situations. To achieve the training objective, a trainer should select the most appropriate training method for the content to involve the trainees in the learning process. Four major factors are considered when selecting a training method: the learning objective, the content, the trainees, and the practical requirements (Wentling, 1992). According to Bass and Vaughan (1966), training methods should be selected on the basis of the degree to which they do the following:

1. Allow active participation of the learners.
2. Help the learners transfer learning experiences from training to the job situation.
3. Provide the learners with knowledge of results about their attempts to improve.
4. Provide some means for the learners to be reinforced for the appropriate behaviour.
5. Provide the learners with an opportunity to practise and to repeat when needed.
6. Motivate the learners to improve their own performance.
7. Help learners increase their willingness to change.

These criteria indicate that a single training method will not satisfy the objectives of a training programme.

A variety of training methods are available to a trainer. The most commonly used methods include:

1. Instructor presentation. The trainer orally presents new information to the trainees, usually through lecture. Instructor presentation may include classroom lecture, seminar, workshop, and the like.

2. Group discussion. The trainer leads the group of trainees in discussing a topic.

3. Demonstration. The trainer shows the correct steps for completing a task, or shows an example of a correctly completed task.

4. Assigned reading. The trainer gives the trainees reading assignments that provide new information.

5. Exercise. The trainer assigns problems to be solved either on paper or in real situations related to the topic of the training activity.

6. Case study. The trainer gives the trainees information about a situation and directs them to come to a decision or solve a problem concerning the situation.

7. Role play. Trainees act out a real-life situation in an instructional setting.

8. Field visit and study tour. Trainees are given the opportunity to observe and interact with the problem being solved or skill being learned.

Implementation phase

Once the planning phase of a training programme is complete, then it is time to implement the course. Implementation is the point where a trainer activates the training plan, or it is the process of putting a training programme into operation.

The first step towards implementing a training programme is publicity. Most of the well-established training centres develop training brochures which contain course descriptions, prepare an annual calendar of training opportunities, and inform concerned organizations, agencies, or departments well ahead of time about their training plans. Once the training centre and concerned organizations agree to implement training, the next step is to arrange available resources such as sufficient funds for the course and facilities for food, lodging, transportation, and recreation. All these resources need to be well managed and coordinated to run the programme smoothly.
Evaluation phase

Evaluation is a process to determine the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in light of their objectives. In evaluating an extension training programme, one needs to consider that most training activities exist in a larger context of projects, programmes, and plans. Thus Raab et al. (1987, p. 5) define training evaluation as "a systematic process of collecting information for and about a training activity which can then be used for guiding decision making and for assessing the relevance and effectiveness of various training components."

Kirkpatrick (1976) suggested four criteria to evaluate training programmes: (1) reaction, (2) learning, (3) behaviour, and (4) results. Each criterion is used to measure the different aspects of a training programme. Reaction measures how the trainees liked the programme in terms of content, methods, duration, trainers, facilities, and management. Learning measures the trainees' skills and knowledge which they were able to absorb at the time of training. Behaviour is concerned with the extent to which the trainees were able to apply their knowledge to real field situations. Results are concerned with the tangible impact of the training programme on individuals, their job environment, or the organization as a whole.

Types of Evaluation

On the basis of the time dimension, evaluation may be classified as (1) formative evaluation and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation involves the collection of relevant and useful data while the training programme is being conducted. This information can identify the drawbacks and unintended outcomes and is helpful in revising the plan and structure of training programmes to suit the needs of the situation. Summative evaluation is done at the end of the programme and makes an overall assessment of its effectiveness in relation to achieving the objectives and goals.

Raab et al. (1987), however, classified evaluation into four major types: (1) evaluation for planning, (2) process evaluation, (3) terminal evaluation, and (4) impact evaluation.

Evaluation for planning provides information with which planning decisions are made. Training contents and procedures (methods and materials) are usually planned at this stage in order to choose or guide the development of instructional aids and strategies. Process evaluation is conducted to detect or predict defects in the procedural design of a training activity during the implementation phase (Raab et al., 1987). Through this process the key elements of the training activities are systematically monitored, problems are identified, and attempts are made to rectify the mistakes before they become serious. Process evaluation is periodically conducted throughout the entire period of the programme.

Terminal evaluation is conducted to find out the effectiveness of a training programme after it is completed. The objectives of terminal evaluation are to determine the degree to which desired benefits and goals have been achieved, along with the causes of failure, if any. Impact evaluation assesses changes in on-the-job behaviour as a result of training efforts. It provides feedback from the trainees and supervisors about the outcomes of training. It measures how appropriate the training was in changing the behaviour of participants in real-life situations.
References

Bahal, R., Swanson, B. E., & Farner, B. J. (1992). Human resources in agricultural extension: A worldwide analysis. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 28 (3, 4), 1-9.

Bass, B. M., & Vaughan, J. A. (1966). Training in industry: The management of learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Dahama, O. P. (1979). Extension and rural welfare. New Delhi: Ram Parsad and Sons.

Elam, S. (1971). Performance based teacher education: What is the state of the art. Washington, DC: AACTE.

Flippo, E. B. (1961). Principles of personnel management. New York: McGraw Hill.

Halim, A., & Ali, M. M. (1988). Administration and management of training programmes. Bangladesh Journal of Training and Development, 1 (2), 1-19.

IRRI. (1990). Training and technology transfer course performance objectives manual. Manila: International Rice Research Institute.

Jucious, M. J. (1963). Personnel management (5th ed.). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Kirkpatrick, D. (1976). Evaluation of training. In R. L. Craig (Ed.), Training and development handbook. New York: McGraw Hill.

Lynton, R. P., & Pareek, U. (1990). Training for development. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Malone, V. M. (1984). Inservice training and staff development. In B. E. Swanson (Ed.), Agricultural extension: A reference manual. Rome: FAO.

McGhee, W., & Thayer, P. W. (1961). Training in business and industry. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Raab, R. T., Swanson, B. E., Wentling, T. L., & dark, C. D. (Eds.). (1987). A trainer's guide to evaluation. Rome: FAO.

Rama, B. R., Etling, A. W. W., & Bowen, B. E. (1993). Training of farmers and extension personnel. In R. K. Samanta (Ed.), Extension strategy for agricultural development in 21st century. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.

Rogers, F. E., & Olmsted, A. G. (1957). Supervision in the cooperative extension service. Madison, WI: National Agricultural Extension Center for Advanced Study.

Swanson, B. E., Farner, B. J., & Bahal, R. (1990). The current status of agricultural extension worldwide. In B. E. Swanson (Ed.), Report of the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension. Rome: FAO.

Van Dorsal, W. R. (1962). The successful supervisor. New York: Harper and Row.

Wentling, T. L. (1992). Planning for effective training: A guide to curriculum development. Rome: FAO.


5 comments:

sanur said...

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emie said...

very informative post keep it up

Carms said...

Learning is a fun

Carms said...

Learning is a fun

Hafizu said...

keep on rock... learn & study hard